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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 44-48

Relation between media habits with behavior management problems along with dental anxiety during dental procedures in children


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Vidya Cancer Hospital, Gwalior, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, RR Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission04-Apr-2021
Date of Decision15-May-2021
Date of Acceptance18-May-2021
Date of Web Publication24-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Kumar Gaurav Chhabra
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Sawangi, Wardha - 442 001, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpcdoh.jpcdoh_13_21

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  Abstract 


Background: Relationship between children's media habit with their anxiety and behavior management problems (BMPs) is clinically relevant in establishing the link of usage of social media with dental fear and problems in behavior management during dental chairside treatment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between media habits with BMPs along with dental anxiety (DA) during dental procedures in children. Materials and Methods: Overall, fifty patients of 3–10 years old were selected. DA and BMP were recorded by application of Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale and Frankel's Rating Scale in dental procedure. Parents reported their own DA on a Likert scale and also the time spend on using media and its type by children as well as parents was noted. Analysis of data was done with Mann–Whitney U and Chi-square test at “P < 0.05” significant level. Results: In children with BMP, TV watching and overall usage of electronic media were found more compared to those without BMP, this was significant. There was no significant correlation of total hours of TV watching and overall media time in children with DA. While in children with BMP, TV watching and overall usage of electronic media were found more compared to those without BMP, this was significant. There was a significant correlation of total hours of TV watching and overall media time in children with DA and BMP. Conclusions: There was a significant relation between BMPs with media usage in children while the same was insignificant with DA.

Keywords: Behavior management problems, dental anxiety, media habits


How to cite this article:
Deolia S, Chaurasia AV, Kohale RA, Makode SS, Nimbulkar G, Chhabra KG. Relation between media habits with behavior management problems along with dental anxiety during dental procedures in children. J Prim Care Dent Oral Health 2021;2:44-8

How to cite this URL:
Deolia S, Chaurasia AV, Kohale RA, Makode SS, Nimbulkar G, Chhabra KG. Relation between media habits with behavior management problems along with dental anxiety during dental procedures in children. J Prim Care Dent Oral Health [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 23];2:44-8. Available from: http://www.jpcdoh.org/text.asp?2021/2/2/44/319193




  Introduction Top


Stress is when environmental demands strain an organism's adaptive capacity resulting in both psychological demands as well as biological changes that could place at risk for illness. Anyone can be affected by stress irrespective of their age. The psychological and physical efficiency of human beings affects stress. Previous studies show that there is a relation between the development of mood disorders such as anxiety disorders and depression with stress.[1]

An emotion arising without objective source of danger and similar to fear is anxiety. Anxiety is stated as undesirable feeling which is associated with impending feeling of danger from within or from without. The types of anxiety can be classified as trait, state, free floating, situational, and general. A lifelong pattern of anxiety as a temperament feature is a trait type of anxiety. State anxiety is situational-bound episodes that do not persist beyond the provoking situation. A condition of persistently apprehensive mood in which emotion cause is not known, and other thoughts or event trigger anxiety is a free-floating type of anxiety. Situational anxiety is seen in specific situations. General anxiety is a chronic invasive anxiousness feel, not regarding the external circumstances.[2]

Patient anxiety can be evaluated through the Anxiety Rating Scale; whereas, behavior management is when dental health team precisely performs treatment for children and subsequently instills a productive dental attitude. Behavior management can be done to a child's emotion and behavior according to the laws of society in a beneficial manner. Behavior management is of two types that are pharmacological and nonpharmacological. The patient's behavior management can be evaluated using Frankel's Behavior Rating Scale.[3]

There are many factors which may lead to dental anxiety (DA) such as sound and vibration sensation of dental instruments, certain unpleasant previous experiences.[4] “Information and communication technology” has now become a major of the regular life in children as well as teenagers; this has become one of the factors which may cause DA.[5] It has also been noted, anxiety during dental treatment reflected mostly general anxiety type, and this outlook of child's transpiring behavior (e.g., cognitive functions and impulse control) might result in a decrease in fear in older preschoolers.[6]

Electronic media devices are getting more advanced with time; the media use interest is increasing in children because of which it may become problematic in managing the media standards. The media effects may influence health and development of young ones and hence much concern has been expressed about the same.[7]

Previous studies noted that children's emotions are evoked by media which affects emotionally active content that may result in development of anxiety- and behavioral change-related problems.[8] Anxiety, behavioral, and depression problems of children are predisposing factors for behavioral management problems and DA.[9] Hence, media usage is interfering potentially with children's social and psychological growth, and so it affects various aspects of their life consisting of parents' relationship and peer, social and school performances, and mental and physical development.[10]

The aim of the present study was to explore present information by investigating relationships between media habits with behavioral management problems and DA of children in dental treatment.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was conducted out in Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. This study was approved by the “Institutional Ethical Committee” (DMIMS (DU)/IEC/2018–7568). 3–10-year-old patients opting for dental treatment for the first time were incorporated into the study population. The intend of the study was then described, and consent (written) was taken by the parents or guardians of the patients.

Patients' information was collected from patients visiting the department of pedodontics from the month of October 2018 to March 2019. A total of fifty patients were included in the study. Dental treatments such as dental extractions, pulpectomy, and pulpotomy procedures performed by a pedodontist were chosen for the study. Patients with history of medical and mental conditions were excluded.

A pro forma was prepared which was to be filled by a parent or guardian of selected patients. The pro forma consisted of demographic variables which included information regarding age and gender of the patient. A total 5 questions were related to the type of media used and the average time spent daily on media by patients also same, out of which two questions were closed-ended. Two questions were included in pro forma for parents or guardians who were keen to take part in the study. Along with this, pro forma included assessment of Clinical Anxiety Scale (Venham's Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale) of the patients which had scores from 0 to 4. Frankel's Rating Scale was also recorded for rating the behavior of the patients which was graded as definitely negative, negative, positive, and definitely positively.[11] Both the scales were recorded by a single investigator within 5 min of the starting of the dental procedure. While the pro forma also included one question related to the anxiety of parent or guardian during dental treatment which was to be filled by them on the basis of Likert five-point rating scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

Statistical analysis

After data collection, it was entered in Microsoft Office Excel (2007) and was analyzed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Statistics for Windows, Version 16.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Descriptive analysis was done with Mann–Whitney U and Chi-square test at “P < 0.05” significant level.


  Results Top


The usage of various electronic media by patient

Overall, it was observed that 27 children had habit of watching TV, 19 children used mobile, 1 child used computer, and 3 used all the mentioned media. The usage of TV tended to be higher among girls.

A total sample of fifty children of 3–10 years old with their guardians were involved in the study. Participants' baseline characteristics are demonstrated in [Table 1]. Patients were classified on the basis of existence of DA and behavior management problems (BMPs) [Table 2]. Here, no significant variation in age and sex among patients with or without DA was seen (P > 0.05). Similarly, there was a significant variation in age and sex among patients with or without BMPs (P > 0.05).
Table 1: Baseline characteristics of the patients

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Table 2: Comparison of demographic variables between study groups

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Patients' habit of using media and DA showed that there was no significant variation in different media usage among patients with or without DA (P > 0.05) [Table 2]. Children without DA had noticeably more amount of TV watching (n = 6) and mobile (n = 2) compared to those with DA.

Media habit of patients and behavior management problems

There was no marked difference in various media usage among the children with or without BMPs (P < 0.05). Total span of watching TV and electronic media usage were remarkably increased in children with BMPs (n = 13, P > 0.05) than those without BMPs (n = 11, P < 0.05).


  Discussion Top


It has been shown that various aspects such as sex, age, and psychosocial factors are associated with DA.[6] Moreover, the present investigations have demonstrated that consumption of media might become a dangerous factor for anxiety disorders.[12] This research shows that the results of attempt to perceive BMP and DA during the dental treatments are associated with more media usage in preschool children. In this study, parents' reports were used to determine the children's media usage time.

The study stated that the children spending more time on TV and using electronic media most probably had BMP while less DA. Perspective related to the media effect to children's aggressiveness as well as behaviors is not constant.[8] More media usage has been shown to definitely associated with more BMP and depression along with anxiety and psychological adjustment.[13] Children have been shown to depict behaviors displayed on TV, specifically patients around 14 months of age. However, it is stated that media usage has many adverse effects upon the social behavior of children. Hence, it is necessary for exploring effect in dental environment due to various media usage upon the DA and BMP of children.[14]

The improper media usage by the children may result in adverse effect such as anxiety and behavior which can be described with the theory of social learning where every behavioral reaction is stimulated depending upon the function related to particular augmentation in that situation. Based upon this theory, media usage can adversely affect children as they may model the negative behaviors to which they are sheltered.[15]

Our study results showed that children of or <6 years of age spent approximately 2–4 h/day in watching TV, same as which was observed and stated by previous studies also.[16],[17]

In the present study, the children in society and behavior were evaluated during the dental treatments which were included in this study by observing the patient for within 5 min after the starting of the procedure. While in a previous study, the children's anxiety and behavior were marked during routine dental treatment, for which they observed for 30–45 min. As the DA of a child might differ after a span of 5 min of the start of treatment, this might be the reason for getting significant BMP and less DA in children using media in our results, while a previous study got both BMP and DA as a significantly related factor with media habits of children.[17] Furthermore, it has been previously stated that DA has multifactorial etiology, and all those factors might have led to no significant correlation between children using media with that of DA and without DA in our study. It was seen that from the study reported by Mobarek et al. that the more the time spent on screen, the more is the DA and the more are the behavior problems.[18] Playing music at the time of dental procedures can reduce the DA as reported by Ashana Gupta and Bilal Ahmed.[19]

Previous studies have also noted that the presence of parents during dental treatment does not affect children's behavior and anxiety.[20] Hence, it should be examined in future studies whether the presence and absence of parents affect the behavior and anxiety of the child during dental treatment.


  Conclusions Top


The alarming increase of social media in generation has made an impact on various aspects of life and health. Thus, it is no surprise that overall behavior of children is changing which in turn leads to BMPs during dental treatment. Although DA is also an interlinked phenomenon, we could not find any significant relation of it with media usage. The complex nature of these attributes must be evaluated with further studies.

Significance of the study

The relationship between children's media habit with their anxiety and BMPs is clinically relevant in establishing the link of usage of social media with dental fear and problems in behavior management during dental chairside treatment.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Tendolkr VD, Behere P, Sharma VK, Quazi Z, Gaidhane A, Sebastian T. Relationship between perceived stress and mental functions and psychiatric morbidity. A survey in Maharashtra. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2016;11:285-90.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Tandon S, Rajwar AS. Emotional Development. Textbook of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. 3rd ed. India: Paras Medical Publisher; 2018. p. 205-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tandon S, Gupta K, Mani SA. Behavioural Science and Its Application in Paediatric Dentistry. Textbook of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. 3rd ed. India: Paras Medical Publisher; 2018. p. 227-33.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Deepak Vishwanath D, Mahesh Kumar M, Prabhuji ML. Dental anxiety, fear and phobia in children. Int J Dent Res Dev 2014;4:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Punamäki RL, Wallenius M, Nygård CH, Saarni L, Rimpelä A. Use of information and communication technology (ICT) and perceived health in adolescence: The role of sleeping habits and waking-time tiredness. J Adolesc 2007;30:569-85.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Dental fear\anxiety and dental behavior management problems in children and adolescents. A review of prevelance and concomitant psychological factors. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007;17:391-406.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Lenhart A, Kahne J, Middaugh E, Rankin MA, Chris E, Jessica V, et al. Teens, Video Games, and Civics: Teens' Gaming Experiences are Diverse and Include Significant Social Interaction and Civic Engagement. Pew Internet and American Life Project; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Wilson BJ. Media and children's aggression, fear, and altruism. Future Child 2008;18:87-118.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Erfanparast L, Vafaei A, Sohrabi A, Ranjkesh B, Bahadori Z, Pourkazemi M, et al. Impact of self-concept on preschoolers' dental anxiety and behavior. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2015;9:188-92.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Jordan A. The role of media in childern's development. An ecological perspective. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2004;25:196-206.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Venham LL, Gaulin-Kremer E, Munster E, Bengston-Audia D, Cohan J. Interval rating scales for children's dental anxiety and uncooperative behaviour. J Pediatr Dent 1980;2:195-202.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Kappos AD. The impact of electronic media on mental and somatic children's health. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2007;210:555-62.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Przybylski AK. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment. Pediatrics 2014;134:e716-22.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Gentile DA, Walsh DA. A normative study of family media habits. J Appl Dev Psychol 2002;23:157-178.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Ohannessian CM. Media use and adolescent psychological adjustment: An examination of gender differences. J Child Fam Stud 2009;18:582-93.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Marshall SJ, Gorely T, Biddle SJ. A descriptive epidemiology of screen-based media use in youth: A review and critique. J Adolesc 2006;29:333-49.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Jmali Z, Vatandoost M, Efranparast L, Aminabadi NA, Shirazi S. The relationship between children's media habits and their anxiety and behavior during dental treatment. J Acts Odontol Scans 2018;76:161-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Mobarek NH, Khalil AM, Talaat DM. Exposure to electronic screens and children's anxiety and behavior during dental treatment. J Dent Child 2019;86:139-44.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Gupta A, Ahmed B. Experience of listening to music on patient anxiety during minor oral surgery procedures: A pilot study. Br Dent J 2020;228:89-92.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Cox IC, Krikken JB, Veerkamp JS. Influence of parental presence on the child's perception of, and behavior, during dental treatment. J Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2011;12:200-4.  Back to cited text no. 20
    



 
 
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