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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 72-74

Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various Districts of Jammu and Kashmir


Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Date of Submission27-May-2021
Date of Decision16-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance20-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication25-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
Malvika Singh
Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpcdoh.jpcdoh_23_21

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  Abstract 


Background: India is one of the top three tobacco burden countries in the world. Tobacco intake causes loss of health and environment and increases the financial burden of an individual. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake among individuals of more than 15 years of age in union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Subjects and Methods: District-wise data from the National Health Survey-5, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 2019–2020, were collected, analyzed, and measured. Data collected were entered and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Various districts were diagrammatically color coded and described. Results: Out of all the 20 districts in J and K, the prevalence of tobacco smoking was highest in Kupwara district (56.6%) and lowest in Jammu district (26.6%). Conclusions: People should be made more aware about the ill effects of tobacco usage. Although the Government of India enacted various legislations to control tobacco use, its reduction lies in our hands and the same should be discussed with general masses by making them aware about the menace of tobacco on mental, environmental, and health of an individual.

Keywords: Distribution, ill effects, Jammu and Kashmir, tobacco, tobacco control


How to cite this article:
Singh M. Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various Districts of Jammu and Kashmir. J Prim Care Dent Oral Health 2021;2:72-4

How to cite this URL:
Singh M. Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various Districts of Jammu and Kashmir. J Prim Care Dent Oral Health [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24];2:72-4. Available from: http://www.jpcdoh.org/text.asp?2021/2/3/72/324541




  Introduction Top


India is the second-largest producer of tobacco in the world, with an estimated annual production of 800 million kilograms. It is also among the top three highest-burden countries in terms of the number of users.[1] In 2016, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey estimated the prevalence of smokeless and smoked tobacco use in India among those aged C 15 years to be 21.4% and 10.7%, respectively.[2] Apart from causing economic and environmental loss, the use of tobacco affects health greatly.


  Subjects and Methods Top


Data from the National Health Survey-5, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 2019–2020,[3] were studied, analyzed, and measured for the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in individuals aged 15 years and above in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Data collected were entered and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Various districts are diagrammatically color coded and described in [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3].
Figure 1: Distribution of tobacco intake in overall population in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir

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Figure 2: Distribution of tobacco intake among males in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir

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Figure 3: Distribution of tobacco intake among females in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir

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  Results Top


It was found that the highest number of individuals who took tobacco in any form belonged to Kupwara district (56.6%) followed by Anantnag district (49.9%) and Budgam district (48.8%) whereas the least percentage of tobacco was consumed in Jammu district (26.5%) followed by Kathua district (35.4%) and Srinagar district (38.4%), respectively [Table 1] and [Figure 1]. Out of a total population, when analyzing males and their tobacco consumption district wise, it was found that the highest number of the same belonged from Kupwara district (49.8%) followed by Anantnag district (47.0%) and Shopian district (47.0%), respectively, whereas the least percentage of males consuming tobacco belonged to Jammu district (25.7%) followed by Kathua district (33.3%) and Baramulla district (34.7%), respectively [Table 1] and [Figure 2]. Similarly, while analyzing females and their tobacco consumption district wise, it was found that the highest number of the same belonged from Bandipora district (9.1%) followed by Kupwara district (6.8%) and Baramulla district (6.5%), respectively, whereas the least percentage of females consuming tobacco belonged to Jammu district (0.8%) followed by Srinagar district (1.9%) and Poonch district (2.3%), respectively [Table 1] and [Figure 3].
Table 1: Distribution of tobacco intake in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir in year 2019-2020

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  Discussion Top


Tobacco intake not only takes a toll on health of an individual but also causes economic and environmental loss. Unsurprisingly, the trends of tobacco use were markedly different across the different districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Kupwara district recorded the highest prevalence of any form of tobacco use in both genders and Jammu district recorded the least prevalence which can be attributed to education, income, caste, and other socioeconomic variables which are recognized as strong predictors of tobacco use may explain this interdistrict variation.[4] Belonging to a particular region has been observed as an independent predictor of tobacco use, implying that distal factors such as tradition, politico-legal climate, and geography, operating at a state level, also influence tobacco use behavior.[5] Individuals who take tobacco in any form are encouraged to undergo smoking cessation program. Having seen as analyzed the trends in the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake among population, as health professionals, it is our moral and professional duty to make general masses aware about the ill effects of tobacco not only on themselves but also on their loved ones and ensure the decrease and eventually cessate the same in short frame of time. Not only this, the Government of India has introduced tobacco cessation policies such as Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act in 2003, formation of Tobacco Cessation Clinics. It has also developed National Tobacco Cessation Program for which the affected individuals should be motivated to join the same.


  Conclusions Top


Prevalence of tobacco intake in Jammu and Kashmir, particularly in district of Kupwara and Shopian presents a matter of serious concern not only for health professionals and the Government but also for the immediate society and environment associated with it. Although the Government is trying its best to control the usage of tobacco in any which way, its decline lies in our hands and we as responsible citizens of the country should stop smoking and encourage and motivate others who do the same so that we can live in clean and healthy environment which is not only safe for us but also holds a true promise for coming generations too.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017;390:1345-422.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2017) Global Adult Tobacco Survey—Fact Sheet India, 2016–17. Government of India, New Delhi. Available from https://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/GATS_India_2016-17_FactSheet.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 May 24].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
National Health Family Survey (2019-2020). Accessed from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-5_JK.shtml. [Last accessed on 2021 May 24].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Agrawal S, Karan A, Selvaraj S, Bhan N, Subramanian SV, Millett C. Socio-economic patterning of tobacco use in Indian states. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013;17:1110-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Subramanian SV, Nandy S, Kelly M, Gordon D, Davey Smith G. Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: Cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998-9 national family health survey. BMJ 2004;328:801-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


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    Tables

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Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
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