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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2021
Volume 2 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 57-91

Online since Wednesday, August 25, 2021

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A comprehensive insights into oral health in COVID-19 p. 57
P Charulata Sree, SP Sunantha, Tarun Kumar Suvvari
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the most probable route of entrance for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is suggested to be that of oral mucosa as it contains angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, which acts as a cellular doorway for the entry of the virus. Anti-viral and broad-spectrum antibiotics used to treat COVID-19 can be responsible for oral problems associated with soft tissue, saliva production, and neurological-based oral sensations reported even in fully recovered patients. Oral manifestations like loss of taste (complete ageusia or partial hypogeusia) and altered taste were most common, followed by various lesions and plaques affecting the intraoral site. Poor oral hygiene can lead to complications in patients suffering from systemic diseases such as diabetes, kidney, and liver disease. Since oral health has a significant impact on a patient's general health, improved oral hygiene can significantly decrease the risk of oropharyngeal colonization and respiratory complications, especially in the elderly and patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Due to the high risk of COVID-19 transmission among dentists and patients, it is important to re-design recommendations to oral medicine and dentists working in the hospital setting to manage oral manifestations. Oral health-related quality of life is an all-encompassing term used to denote how one's oral health impacts on their ability to function normally can be a crucial subjective measure to analyze oral health during these challenging times.
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India in second Coronavirus Disease-2019 pandemic emergency: A brief review p. 62
Tarun Vyas
In a number of countries, coronavirus disease-2019 is a second pandemic that is progressing fast. When it comes to diseases in India, the rate of spread is incredibly high. There has been a slowdown in the use of multifaceted strategies to some extent. Sadly, the disease is advancing rapidly in India despite all efforts. The objective of this review is to evaluate critically the strategies adopted by the Indian Government to address this second pandemic and to propose appropriate strategies for the current context mainly through the 5 T approach (Trace, Track, Test, Treat, and Technology). Local governments have begun to implement disease containment measures, but to explain the need for a mask, a social divergence, stop mass meetings, voluntary quarantines, and testing, the federal government has an essential role to play.
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Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in relation to habits among high school children of Kanpur City: A cross-sectional study p. 66
Rahul Srivastava, Sartaj S Wazir, Devina Pradhan, Lokesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar, Priyanka Kumari
Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic insidious disease that affects oral cavity, may also involve pharynx or esophagus, and may be associated with vesicle formation. The present study aimed to determine prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among school children in Kanpur city through cross-sectional study and its association with various type of quid and areca nut chewing habit. Materials and Methods: In different urban and rural educational areas of the Kanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, a school-based cross-sectional study was carried out. Data on consumption of areca nut were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire based on demographic characteristics, areca nut use, daily frequency of areca nut chewing, other ingredients mixed with nut, tobacco use (smoking and/or chewing), age of initiation of nut chewing, reasons for use, social influence factors, and risk perceptions. All oral examinations were done by specialist examiners who were familiar with oral mucosal lesions in the local population. Results: The results from this study shows that the areca nut chewing habit is significant among school children of rural areas as compare to urban areas in Kanpur district. No female subject was found to be suffering from OSMF in both the urban as well as rural areas however 27 (3.41%) male subjects were found to be suffering from OSMF. Conclusion: In order to spread awareness through educational programs, newspapers, and mass media in neighborhoods and classrooms, steps should be taken at the public health level.
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Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various Districts of Jammu and Kashmir p. 72
Malvika Singh
Background: India is one of the top three tobacco burden countries in the world. Tobacco intake causes loss of health and environment and increases the financial burden of an individual. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake among individuals of more than 15 years of age in union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Subjects and Methods: District-wise data from the National Health Survey-5, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 2019–2020, were collected, analyzed, and measured. Data collected were entered and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Various districts were diagrammatically color coded and described. Results: Out of all the 20 districts in J and K, the prevalence of tobacco smoking was highest in Kupwara district (56.6%) and lowest in Jammu district (26.6%). Conclusions: People should be made more aware about the ill effects of tobacco usage. Although the Government of India enacted various legislations to control tobacco use, its reduction lies in our hands and the same should be discussed with general masses by making them aware about the menace of tobacco on mental, environmental, and health of an individual.
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Rotating shift work, sleep, and accidents related to sleepiness in doctors p. 75
Shravani Deolia, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Gargi S Nimbhorkar, Christina L Pachuau, Angel S Yangad, Gargi Nimbulkar, Sanjana S Basu
Background: Rotating shift work refers to a way of organizing daily working hours in which different persons or teams work in succession to cover more than the usual 8 h per day, up to and including the whole 24 h. Studies have been conducted for examining the effects of rotating shifts on an employee's performance and well-being. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rotating shift work, sleep, and accidents related to sleepiness in doctors. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on doctors of a Tertiary Care Hospital. A close-ended questionnaire containing 25 questions was distributed to doctors (residents and interns) who worked rotating shifts. Questions presented were regarding sleep disturbances, sleeping aids or countermeasures to get to sleep; and accidents or errors in the past year including automobile accidents and medical and procedural errors that the doctors had reported to have occurred because of sleepiness due to rotating shifts. The data collected were analyzed by SPSS version 21 (SPSS statistics IBM Corporation). Results: Doctors reporting to night shifts suffered from decreased and disturbed sleep, irritability, fatigue, and poor reflexes. According to our study, almost all the subjects suffered from poor work and sleep quality due to their changing work shifts. Conclusion: Rotating work shifts have a direct effect on workability and quality and amount of sleep in doctors.
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Management of gingival pigmentation using laser depigmentation technique p. 81
Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Arnab Mandal
Gingival hyperpigmentation can be defined as a darker gingival color beyond what is normally expected. Several by-products of the physiological process such as melanin, oxyhemoglobin, carotene, reduced hemoglobin, and iron and/or pathological diseases and conditions are most commonly the contributors of pigmentation. Either it can be due to melanin pigmentation results produced by melanoblasts or environmental risk factors such as tobacco smoking. Pigmentation of the gingiva not just has an impact on esthetics and may range from physiologic reasons (e.g. racial pigmentation) to manifestations of systemic illnesses (e.g. Addison's disease) to malignant neoplasms (e.g. melanoma and Kaposi's sarcoma). Therefore, an insight understanding is necessary of the cause for mucosal pigmentation before planning the treatment. Gingival depigmentation can be achieved using a wide range of procedures, i.e. depigmentation such as bur abrasion, scraping, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case report, a laser depigmentation technique was used which is simple and yields good results along with good patient satisfaction.
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Zosteriform herpes simplex infection of V3 dermatome p. 85
Mrunal G Meshram, Rahul R Bhowate, Vidya Lohe, Swapnil C Mohod, Bhushan S Madke
Human herpesviruses are prevalent DNA viruses that can cause various orofacial diseases. Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus-induced oral diseases is usually based on the clinical presentation and on the medical history. We hereby present a case of zosteriform herpes simplex infection in an immunocompetent male.
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Regional odontodysplasia: A rare case series and review p. 88
Rajib Sikdar, Avik Narayan Chatterjee, Khooshbu Gayen, Supreet Shirolkar, Anisha Bag, Subir Sarkar
Odontodysplasia is a rare nonhereditary developmental anomaly of dental hard tissue with unknown etiology, arising from both ectodermal and mesodermal components. Hitchin in 1934 first described it as a localized arrest of tooth development generally affecting one quadrant of the jaw. When it just affects one quadrant, it is referred to as “regional odontodysplasia,” but when it crosses the midline and affects more than one quadrant, it is referred to as “generalised odontodysplasia.” In this two case series, various types of odontodysplasia have been described, one of which is confined to a single quadrant and the other crossing the midline. The cases of odontodysplasia can only be treated by multidisciplinary approach and restorative and prosthetic rehabilitation and regular follow-up require for improving the quality of life of patients.
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