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Internet addiction and its psychosocial impact on urban adolescents of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Rahul Srivastava, Devina Pradhan, Lokesh Sharma, Bhuvan Jyoti, Omveer Singh
September-December 2020, 1(1):12-15
Background: Internet addiction is defined as any online-related, compulsive behavior which interferes with normal living and causes severe stress on family, friends, loved ones, and one's work environment. The adolescents are most vulnerable to the numerous addictive temptations offered by the Internet during the transition phase. The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence of Internet addiction in adolescents of urban areas of Kanpur district and assess the association of Internet addiction with stress, anxiety, and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of higher secondary schools/colleges in the urban areas of Kanpur district in Uttar Pradesh. Out of 105 colleges, 10%, i.e., 10 colleges, were selected randomly and a total of 900 students were enrolled in the study. A pretested, predesigned questionnaire, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 were used in the study. Data distribution was assessed for normality using the Shapiro–Wilk test. Categorical data were compared using the Chi-square test. All values were considered statistically significant for a value of P ≤ 0.05. Results: Majority (61.1%) of the respondents were females, and the mean age was 17.20 years. The prevalence of Internet addiction was 89.78%. The main purpose of using Internet was social networking (54.89%), followed by online gaming/gambling (19.67%) and study (12.89%). About 60.44% of the respondents used Internet for 3–6 h/day and 28.67% of the respondents used Internet for <3 h/day. There was a significant association between Internet addiction and stress (odds ratio = 33.55), depression (odds ratio = 0.99), and anxiety (odds ratio = 5.25). Conclusion: Internet addiction is a much quieter problem, and as such, it may be more readily disregarded or not even recognized as a problem. As parents and caregivers, understanding how to differentiate between normal Internet use and compulsive use is critically important.
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Are dentists suicide prone? The current scenario
Gunjan Kumar, Payal Dash
September-December 2020, 1(1):3-7
There is a widely discussed belief that dentist are at a high risk for suicide. Since 1960, dental journal have been carrying articles with headline like “The suicidal professions.” While this claim is often accepted without question, there are little reliable data that support the alleged risk and on the contrary few data even suggest the opposite. In India, few cases of suicide among dental student have been reported, but not much data are available. This paper aims at presenting a review of literature related to this complex issue and it shows that occupation is not a major predictor of suicide and it does not explain about why person commit suicide.
  1,764 161 -
Internet addiction among youth: A glimpse
Payal Dash, Gunjan Kumar, Vinay Suresan, Shishirendu Ghosal
January-April 2021, 2(1):16-18
Playing digital games or spending most of the time online has become a common leisure activity for both adolescents and the youth in the today's era. The Internet has helped a large number of people by providing them with unlimited knowledge and entertainment. However, it has also made them addicted toward it. And most importantly, there has been an incredible rise in the usage of Internet in India in the recent years which has negatively affected the mental well-being and the sleep quality of its users. This review describes briefly the prevalence of Internet use among youth and its aspect during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Effective teaching methodologies in dental education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A brief review
Tarun Vyas
January-April 2021, 2(1):4-7
The coronavirus (COVID-19), which evokes diverse response methods worldwide, has challenged health professionals and dentists. This article would explore possibilities for the effects of the epidemic on dental instruction and its methodologies. This is carried out by a detailed review of the literature available on the related aspects of the field. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has caused many problems in clinical dentistry, the opportunity to modernize methods is given to dental educators and adequate pedagogy with the use of modern technology concepts and online networking and the use of learning. In addition, the COVID-19 crisis revealed a significant underestimation of the role of e-oral health education and services facilities and advanced technologies, as well as teledentistry.
  1,576 145 -
Role of curcumin as an antioxidant
Tarun Vyas
September-December 2020, 1(1):8-11
In recent years, there is an upsurge in the areas related to newer developments in prevention of diseases, especially the role of free radicals and antioxidants; free radicals are unstable chemicals formed in the body during normal metabolism or exposure to environmental toxins such as pollutants in air, food, and water. Curcumin combined with enhancing agents provides multiple health benefits. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Ingesting curcumin by itself does not lead to the associated health benefits due to its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. There are several components that can increase bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the plethora of research regarding the health benefits of curcumin.
  1,482 118 -
Call for dialogue: Primary care, dentistry, oral medicine, and public health
Raman Kumar
September-December 2020, 1(1):1-2
The Journal of Primary Care Dentistry and Oral Health has been established with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary research within an academic domain that is of paramount significance but often neglected the most. Poor oro-dental health leads not only to considerable morbidity but also costs to individuals, community, and governments in economic terms. The primary care setting uniquely offers the opportunity to deliver oral health care to the population as part of a comprehensive health-care package. The editorial team of the journal welcomes all primary care, dental and oral health, and public health professionals to support this unique area of human need through their scholastic work.
  1,377 136 -
Biomarkers in saliva as diagnostic tool in early diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis
Yagnaseni Mandal, Kunal Jha, Avinash Jnaneswar
January-April 2021, 2(1):8-10
The potentially malignant lesions of oral cavity pose a sensitive challenge to the public health status. The risk is considerably high of malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) into oral cancer. The more rapidly they get diagnosed early, the better it is for public oral health. The need of the hour is to put into general practice the minimally invasive and noninvasive procedures of diagnostics for these lesions. Salivary biomarkers are recently advanced diagnostic tools fit for the requirement. With more researches and developments in technology, they are becoming a fast and with ease both patient and clinician-friendly choice and also medically appropriate. High expectations are that salivary biomarkers become sole noninvasive and exact method of diagnosing premalignant disorders such as OSMF.
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Herbs used in dentistry: Need of the new era
Samikshya Jena, Gunjan Kumar, Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Alok Kumar Sethi
January-April 2021, 2(1):11-13
In India, the medical system is developed in terms of “Ayurveda.” It is an unconventional medicinal system developed in India many years ago, now being practiced as alternative medicine worldwide. The understanding of medicinal plants has been gathered for hundreds of years, based on different curative methods such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. The field of dentistry has also started making use of the medicinal properties of herbal plants for the purpose of relieving dental pain, periodontal problems, and canker sores. Antiseptics, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiviral, and analgesic agents derived from plants are of extensive interest in dentistry. Herbal plant extracts are also available in many forms which can be utilized. As the herbal medicines do not cause addiction or allergic reactions, they can be used for a long time with properly prescribed dosage and time. However, some of the herbal plants may also cause some side effects to the human population.
  1,343 129 -
Genetics in public health
Shilpa Rai, Gunjan Kumar, Vinay Suresan, Alok Kumar Sethi, Vidya Bhushan
January-April 2021, 2(1):1-3
Genetics is considered a branch of science dealing with the study of heredity and variation in genes and genotype. A hybrid subspecialty of genetics and public health has come up in recent years. Public health genetics involves the application of genetics and molecular biotechnology in the improvement of community health and disease prevention. The Centers for Disease Control developed a framework comprising four essential public health functions and three critical issues associated with individual function. This review aims to highlight the integration of discoveries in genetic into public health. Scientific approach is required to study the impact of genetic discoveries on community health. Judicious assessment of the utility of genetic tests and development of standards and guidelines for reassuring superior genetic testing are critical steps in the process. Strong public health leadership to develop, implement, and evaluate disease intervention strategies is required for utilizing the advances in genetics for disease prevention. The critical issues that affect each function are partnerships and coordination; ethical, legal, and social issues; and education and training. An integrated and comprehensive scheme is required for the control of genetic diseases. Public health professionals shall help evolve, study, and propagate the scientific knowledge that would serve as a guide for public health action.
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Endodontic management of mandibular second premolar with three canals
Payal Jain, Shubham Jain, Deepali Jain, Prashant Purandhar Shetty
September-December 2020, 1(1):16-18
Knowledge of root canal morphology has been a complex and utmost important issue regarding the planning and implementation of root canal therapy. In addition to having adequate knowledge on periapical radiographs from different angles, careful examination of pulp chamber floor and the use of technological advances are also salient factors that contribute to the diagnosis of additional roots and canals. The occurrence of three canals with three separate (Type V, Vertucci) foramina in mandibular premolars is very rare. This article reports and discusses the treatment for an atypical occurrence of three canals with three separate foramina in the mandibular second premolar.
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Reattachment an immediate esthetic protocol
Pradeep Bapna, Darshit Jain, Barkha Udhani, Prashant Purandhar Shetty
September-December 2020, 1(1):19-22
The immediate fragment reattachment is a conservative treatment which allows the restoration of the original dental anatomy thus rehabilitating function and esthetics in a shortest time available. Dentists are confronted with managing dental trauma and restoring fractured teeth on a regular basis. Hence, the technique that speed and simplify treatment, restore esthetics and improve long-term success rate are therefore of potential value and should be considered. Fracture reattachment possess challenging conservative and economically viable procedure within a single visit. This article discusses fragment reattachment technique and presents clinical case of coronal fracture involving enamel, dentin, and pulp.
  1,192 98 -
Community outreach, COVID-19, and challenges
Suranjana Jonak Hazarika, Priyanka Brahma, Avinash Jnaneswar, Kunal Jha
January-April 2021, 2(1):14-15
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a major challenge to health systems across the world. With this dental outreach, programs play a very crucial role in raising community awareness through health education and dental services. In developing countries like India, access to oral health care is poor in rural areas. People need to be motivated for participation in outreach activities and avail the services. Initiatives should be taken up to raise awareness regarding maintenance of good oral hygiene by using antimicrobial mouthwashes and visiting the dentist at regular intervals.
  1,147 104 -
Graphene – Scope in conservative dentistry and endodontics
Priyankita Kar, Rana K Varghese, Naina Agrawal, Himanshi Solanki Jhaveri
May-August 2021, 2(2):21-24
Graphene, a member of the carbon family, is the strongest, stiffest, and thinnest known material, with a thickness of 10 nm. It has emerged as engineered nanomaterials and nanomedicines in dentistry with promising results. Usually produced employing Hummers method, graphene possesses excellent physiomechanical properties, electrical conductivity, stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Owing to their interactions with dental pulp stem cells, they have been functionalized with many scaffolds in regenerative dentistry, to upregulate the odontogenic and osteogenic genes. This emerging science of graphene-based materials has also been used for the debridement of root canals. Their unique property of antibiofilm and antiadhesiveness has been used to prevent dental caries and erosions. In addition, they have been incorporated into various biomaterials to enhance their original properties, like in glass ionomers, biodentine, and in bleaching agents like hydrogen peroxide. Depending on their concentration and time of exposure to the substrate, graphene and their derivatives can be effective antibacterial agents. This updated review provides useful information on the promising introduction of graphene in the field of conservative dentistry and endodontics.
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A comparative study of oral health status of outpatients with mental disorders and healthy controls in a Nigerian tertiary hospital
McKing Izeiza Amedari, Adesanmi Akinsulore, Eyitope O Ogunbodede, Sonny O Jeboda
May-August 2021, 2(2):49-55
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine and compare the oral health status of outpatients with mental disorders (OPMDs) and healthy controls (HCs) in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Methodology: A comparative cross-sectional study among 140 OPMDs was consecutively recruited from the Mental Health Clinic of a Nigerian tertiary teaching hospital. Furthermore, 140 age- and sex-matched HCs screened using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire were recruited from the general outpatient clinic. Oral health status was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, the community periodontal index modified (CPI modified), the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), and the gingival index (GI). Bivariate analyses were carried out to make comparisons between the two groups, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 280 participants were recruited. This comprised 68 male participants and 72 female participants in each group. The mean DMFT in the OPMD group was 0.50 (±1.09) and 0.17 (0.645) for the HC group. The prevalence of dental caries was 24.3% in the OPMD group and 10% in the HC group. The mean OHI-S score was 2.68 (±0.97) and 2.38 (±0.98) and GI score was 1.09 (±0.46) and 0.87 (±0.87), while clinical attachment loss was seen in 48.5% and 32.8% for the OPMD and HC groups, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of common oral diseases in OPMD was higher compared to HC, thus the study provides evidence on the poor oral health of OPMD. Furthermore, there is a need to incorporate preventive dental education into the management of OPMD.
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Relation between media habits with behavior management problems along with dental anxiety during dental procedures in children
Shravani Deolia, Abhishree Vinod Chaurasia, Renuka Ajay Kohale, Sonal Shrikrushna Makode, Gargi Nimbulkar, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra
May-August 2021, 2(2):44-48
Background: Relationship between children's media habit with their anxiety and behavior management problems (BMPs) is clinically relevant in establishing the link of usage of social media with dental fear and problems in behavior management during dental chairside treatment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between media habits with BMPs along with dental anxiety (DA) during dental procedures in children. Materials and Methods: Overall, fifty patients of 3–10 years old were selected. DA and BMP were recorded by application of Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale and Frankel's Rating Scale in dental procedure. Parents reported their own DA on a Likert scale and also the time spend on using media and its type by children as well as parents was noted. Analysis of data was done with Mann–Whitney U and Chi-square test at “P < 0.05” significant level. Results: In children with BMP, TV watching and overall usage of electronic media were found more compared to those without BMP, this was significant. There was no significant correlation of total hours of TV watching and overall media time in children with DA. While in children with BMP, TV watching and overall usage of electronic media were found more compared to those without BMP, this was significant. There was a significant correlation of total hours of TV watching and overall media time in children with DA and BMP. Conclusions: There was a significant relation between BMPs with media usage in children while the same was insignificant with DA.
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Basic oral health knowledge and awareness among rural adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
Amanpreet Kaur Bhangu, Mehraab Dhillon, Karan Singh Ghuman, Mandeep Kumar, Richa Goel, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir
May-August 2021, 2(2):40-43
Background: It is very important to identify common oral health problems particularly in rural areas and create awareness for the same so that people can make informed choices. This study was conducted among the adult population residing in rural areas to assess their oral health knowledge and awareness. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among adult population residing in rural areas around the dental clinic. A total of 662 participants constituted the final sample size after making necessary exclusions. A self-designed close-ended questionnaire written in English and Punjabi (local language) was constructed specifically for the study. The questionnaire was split into two sections. Analysis of variance and t-test were used in statistical analysis. Results: Majority of the participants (450, 68%) were male and 42.6% (282) of participants were in the age group of 41–50 years. Only 38% (251) of participants gave a positive response when asked about the importance of good oral health. About 40.2% (264) of participants believed that dental problems get cured solely by medicines. Low knowledge scores were recorded in 38.2% (252) of participants. Mean knowledge scores of the study participants were significantly associated with education (0.016) and occupation (0.027). Conclusion: Oral health knowledge and awareness among majority of study participants were not satisfactory. Therefore, the study emphasizes an urgent need for dental awareness and education programs targeting the rural masses.
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Host response in periodontology: The defensive shield of the supporting structures of teeth
Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Jugajyoti Pathi
May-August 2021, 2(2):25-39
Oral microbial infections produce a significant rise in systemic inflammatory responses, manifested by acute-phase cytokines and acute-phase inflammatory reactants. Therapeutic oral manipulations or the inappropriate or absence of intervention of progression periodontal disease could have a significant influence on these systemic diseases. Periodontal pathologies usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by pathogenic microorganisms present in the subgingival dental plaque, and cause an inflammatory response. These Inflammatory response process results in the destruction of periodontium, and eventually in tissue, which further leads to tooth loss. The present article explains the role and significance of the host response in periodontal diseases.
  339 31 -
A comprehensive insights into oral health in COVID-19
P Charulata Sree, SP Sunantha, Tarun Kumar Suvvari
September-December 2021, 2(3):57-61
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the most probable route of entrance for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is suggested to be that of oral mucosa as it contains angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, which acts as a cellular doorway for the entry of the virus. Anti-viral and broad-spectrum antibiotics used to treat COVID-19 can be responsible for oral problems associated with soft tissue, saliva production, and neurological-based oral sensations reported even in fully recovered patients. Oral manifestations like loss of taste (complete ageusia or partial hypogeusia) and altered taste were most common, followed by various lesions and plaques affecting the intraoral site. Poor oral hygiene can lead to complications in patients suffering from systemic diseases such as diabetes, kidney, and liver disease. Since oral health has a significant impact on a patient's general health, improved oral hygiene can significantly decrease the risk of oropharyngeal colonization and respiratory complications, especially in the elderly and patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Due to the high risk of COVID-19 transmission among dentists and patients, it is important to re-design recommendations to oral medicine and dentists working in the hospital setting to manage oral manifestations. Oral health-related quality of life is an all-encompassing term used to denote how one's oral health impacts on their ability to function normally can be a crucial subjective measure to analyze oral health during these challenging times.
  286 32 -
Role of family physicians in maintaining oral health and wellness
Raman Kumar
May-August 2021, 2(2):19-20
The family physician's role is to provide whole-body care across all age groups irrespective of the organ system. They provide preventive, promotive, and curative care to families and communities. Due to the traditional fragmentation of the health-care education system, mouth and oral health do not fall into one discipline. Family physicians are positioned uniquely within the health system where they can play a very important role in the provision of oral health care. Family physicians by virtue of their experience and training are capable of screening and providing care a multisystemic approach. They have a continuity of care relationship with the patients and families. And families visit their family doctors multiple times for multiple health problems. During contact with family, physicians have the opportunity to peep into the window of the body – the oral cavity.
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Management of gingival pigmentation using laser depigmentation technique
Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Arnab Mandal
September-December 2021, 2(3):81-84
Gingival hyperpigmentation can be defined as a darker gingival color beyond what is normally expected. Several by-products of the physiological process such as melanin, oxyhemoglobin, carotene, reduced hemoglobin, and iron and/or pathological diseases and conditions are most commonly the contributors of pigmentation. Either it can be due to melanin pigmentation results produced by melanoblasts or environmental risk factors such as tobacco smoking. Pigmentation of the gingiva not just has an impact on esthetics and may range from physiologic reasons (e.g. racial pigmentation) to manifestations of systemic illnesses (e.g. Addison's disease) to malignant neoplasms (e.g. melanoma and Kaposi's sarcoma). Therefore, an insight understanding is necessary of the cause for mucosal pigmentation before planning the treatment. Gingival depigmentation can be achieved using a wide range of procedures, i.e. depigmentation such as bur abrasion, scraping, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case report, a laser depigmentation technique was used which is simple and yields good results along with good patient satisfaction.
  197 33 -
Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in relation to habits among high school children of Kanpur City: A cross-sectional study
Rahul Srivastava, Sartaj S Wazir, Devina Pradhan, Lokesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar, Priyanka Kumari
September-December 2021, 2(3):66-71
Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic insidious disease that affects oral cavity, may also involve pharynx or esophagus, and may be associated with vesicle formation. The present study aimed to determine prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among school children in Kanpur city through cross-sectional study and its association with various type of quid and areca nut chewing habit. Materials and Methods: In different urban and rural educational areas of the Kanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, a school-based cross-sectional study was carried out. Data on consumption of areca nut were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire based on demographic characteristics, areca nut use, daily frequency of areca nut chewing, other ingredients mixed with nut, tobacco use (smoking and/or chewing), age of initiation of nut chewing, reasons for use, social influence factors, and risk perceptions. All oral examinations were done by specialist examiners who were familiar with oral mucosal lesions in the local population. Results: The results from this study shows that the areca nut chewing habit is significant among school children of rural areas as compare to urban areas in Kanpur district. No female subject was found to be suffering from OSMF in both the urban as well as rural areas however 27 (3.41%) male subjects were found to be suffering from OSMF. Conclusion: In order to spread awareness through educational programs, newspapers, and mass media in neighborhoods and classrooms, steps should be taken at the public health level.
  207 20 -
India in second Coronavirus Disease-2019 pandemic emergency: A brief review
Tarun Vyas
September-December 2021, 2(3):62-65
In a number of countries, coronavirus disease-2019 is a second pandemic that is progressing fast. When it comes to diseases in India, the rate of spread is incredibly high. There has been a slowdown in the use of multifaceted strategies to some extent. Sadly, the disease is advancing rapidly in India despite all efforts. The objective of this review is to evaluate critically the strategies adopted by the Indian Government to address this second pandemic and to propose appropriate strategies for the current context mainly through the 5 T approach (Trace, Track, Test, Treat, and Technology). Local governments have begun to implement disease containment measures, but to explain the need for a mask, a social divergence, stop mass meetings, voluntary quarantines, and testing, the federal government has an essential role to play.
  174 18 -
Regional odontodysplasia: A rare case series and review
Rajib Sikdar, Avik Narayan Chatterjee, Khooshbu Gayen, Supreet Shirolkar, Anisha Bag, Subir Sarkar
September-December 2021, 2(3):88-91
Odontodysplasia is a rare nonhereditary developmental anomaly of dental hard tissue with unknown etiology, arising from both ectodermal and mesodermal components. Hitchin in 1934 first described it as a localized arrest of tooth development generally affecting one quadrant of the jaw. When it just affects one quadrant, it is referred to as “regional odontodysplasia,” but when it crosses the midline and affects more than one quadrant, it is referred to as “generalised odontodysplasia.” In this two case series, various types of odontodysplasia have been described, one of which is confined to a single quadrant and the other crossing the midline. The cases of odontodysplasia can only be treated by multidisciplinary approach and restorative and prosthetic rehabilitation and regular follow-up require for improving the quality of life of patients.
  165 18 -
Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various Districts of Jammu and Kashmir
Malvika Singh
September-December 2021, 2(3):72-74
Background: India is one of the top three tobacco burden countries in the world. Tobacco intake causes loss of health and environment and increases the financial burden of an individual. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake among individuals of more than 15 years of age in union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Subjects and Methods: District-wise data from the National Health Survey-5, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 2019–2020, were collected, analyzed, and measured. Data collected were entered and statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Various districts were diagrammatically color coded and described. Results: Out of all the 20 districts in J and K, the prevalence of tobacco smoking was highest in Kupwara district (56.6%) and lowest in Jammu district (26.6%). Conclusions: People should be made more aware about the ill effects of tobacco usage. Although the Government of India enacted various legislations to control tobacco use, its reduction lies in our hands and the same should be discussed with general masses by making them aware about the menace of tobacco on mental, environmental, and health of an individual.
  160 16 -
Zosteriform herpes simplex infection of V3 dermatome
Mrunal G Meshram, Rahul R Bhowate, Vidya Lohe, Swapnil C Mohod, Bhushan S Madke
September-December 2021, 2(3):85-87
Human herpesviruses are prevalent DNA viruses that can cause various orofacial diseases. Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus-induced oral diseases is usually based on the clinical presentation and on the medical history. We hereby present a case of zosteriform herpes simplex infection in an immunocompetent male.
  156 12 -